The structure of Bulk fiber optical cables has many important characteristics. The fiber cable construction needs to provide protection from outside environment during its installation and throught the fiber cable’s working life time.
They must provide mechanical protection for all the fibers inside the cable, at the same time, the cable has to be pretty easy to handle. Most the time, non-netallic strength members are needed to fully take advantage of fiber’s dielectric property.
Bulk fiber optical cables will experience tensile stress, abrasion, cutting, flexing, bending, crushing during the installation and its operation life. These mechanical stresses introduce macrobending, microbending, light signal loss attenuation. Because of manufacturing imperfectness, small surface defects often exist in the optical fibres. So in the real world, fibres tend to break at the cracks that begin from these surface defects under heavy tensile tension.
Fiber optical cables can be divided into several main types. However, the basic elements in a fiber cable are a central strength member, be it metallic or non-metallic, strength members, water barrier, a fiber housing (loose tube), and cable sheaths. Fiber Armored cables also have aluminum or steel armors for rodent protection for direct burial.
A central strength member sits at the center of the cable, made of fiberglass most of the time. This central strength member provides rigidity to the optic cable, preventing the bulk fiber cable from being bent too sharply. It also provides the core ablut which the cable is bulit up.
In additioin to the central strength member, another layer of fiber like strength member is also used. They are made of Aramid yarn, Nylon yard, fiber glass epoxy rod or even steel. Aramid yarn is also called Kevlar, it has a high breaking strain and about fiber times stronger than steel. They provide low weight and all-dielectric construction.
Bulk fiber optical cables can be categotized into several magor types. That includes aerial cable, underground cable, subaqueous cables and more.
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