Optical fibers are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called fiber optic cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances. Optical fibers are made up of two concentric cylindrical glasses. The inner core is surrounded by a concentric core made up of glass and of lower refractive index known as cladding. Protective layer with which the cladding is surrounded is called as protective sheath. The total internal reflection takes place at the cladding – core interface. The core diameter ranges in a few microns and is not much larger than the wavelength of light used. When high data transmission rates are not required, core with comparatively large diameters are used which may be of a few hundred microns.
Fiber Optic Cable Structure
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