IP SAN vs. FCoE: A Comparison Guide

Posted on Jul 20, 2023 by

In the world of storage networking, IP SAN (Internet Protocol Storage Area Network) and FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) are two prominent technologies that offer efficient data transfer and management capabilities. Both technologies have their advantages and considerations when it comes to performance. This article aims to compare IP SAN and FCoE, exploring their definitions and differences to help organizations make an informed choice.

What Is Storage Networking?

Storage networking, also known as networked storage, refers to the practice of connecting storage devices, such as servers and storage arrays, through a dedicated network infrastructure. Storage networking enables organizations to optimize their storage resources, improve data availability, and simplify storage management. IP SAN and FCoE are specific technologies used to implement storage networking, providing efficient and scalable solutions for storing and accessing data.

What Is IP SAN?

IP SAN is a storage networking technology that enables the transmission of stored data over IP networks, typically using Ethernet. It allows for the consolidation of network storage resources and facilitates centralized storage management.

In an IP SAN, storage devices such as disk arrays or storage servers are connected to the network using standard IP protocols, such as TCP/IP. The storage resources are then presented to servers or applications as block-level storage, allowing for direct access and efficient data transfer.

There are different technologies used in IP SANs, including iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) and Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP). iSCSI encapsulates SCSI commands within IP packets, allowing servers to access storage over standard Ethernet networks. FCIP extends Fibre Channel traffic over IP networks, enabling connectivity between remote Fibre Channel SANs.


What Is FCoE?

FCoE is a technology that allows Fibre Channel traffic to be transmitted over Ethernet networks. FCoE combines the Fibre Channel protocol, which is commonly used in traditional Fibre Channel SANs, with Ethernet infrastructure, allowing for the convergence of storage and data networking onto a single unified network.

FCoE operates by utilizing regular Ethernet components such as network interface cards, cables, and switches to manage Fibre Channel data traffic at the data link layer. It achieves this by encapsulating Fibre Channel frames within Ethernet frames, allowing them to be efficiently transmitted across an Ethernet network from one switch, equipped with Fibre Channel ports and connected devices, to another switch with the same configuration.

Differences between IP SAN and FCoE


IP SAN primarily relies on the iSCSI protocol for encapsulating SCSI commands within IP packets. iSCSI storage devices are accessed over standard Ethernet networks. FCoE, on the other hand, encapsulates Fibre Channel frames within Ethernet frames, allowing Fibre Channel traffic to be transported across existing high-speed Ethernet infrastructure.

Network Infrastructure

IP SANs leverage existing IP networks, utilizing standard Ethernet components such as SAN switches, cables, and network interface cards. FCoE requires Ethernet infrastructure that supports Converged Network Adapters (CNAs) and FCoE switches. It requires specialized FCoE-capable switches and cabling that can handle both Ethernet and Fibre Channel traffic.


FCoE is typically considered to offer lower latency and higher throughput compared to IP SANs using iSCSI. This is due to FCoE's ability to maintain the native Fibre Channel protocol and utilize the lossless Ethernet features provided by Data Center Bridging (DCB) technologies. But FCoE requires specialized FCoE switches and has limited device compatibility.


Fibre Channel has a proven track record of scalability, with support for thousands of devices in a single fabric. FCoE inherits this scalability to some extent but may have limitations due to the shared Ethernet infrastructure. IP SAN can scale to accommodate a large number of devices, thanks to the inherent scalability of IP networks.

IP SAN vs. FCoE: How to Make a Choice?

When deciding between IP SAN and FCoE, organizations should consider the following factors:

Performance Requirements

Evaluate the performance needs of your applications and workloads. IP SAN leverages IP networks, which may introduce some latency and lower throughput compared to FCoE, but IP SAN (iSCSI) typically provides sufficient performance for most SMBs. If your applications have relaxed performance requirements, IP SAN is a cost-effective solution. If your applications require higher performance and low latency, FCoE or even Fibre Channel may be a better choice.

Existing Infrastructure

Consider your organization's existing network infrastructure. If you already have a mature Ethernet infrastructure, including Ethernet switches, network cabling, and network interface cards, IP SAN or iSCSI storage is a natural choice. You can leverage your existing Ethernet equipment to build a storage network without the need for additional investment in dedicated FCoE equipment and infrastructure.


Fibre Channel infrastructure tends to be more expensive, requiring specialized switches, adapters, and cabling. IP SAN is often a more cost-effective choice. Compared to the dedicated equipment and infrastructure required for FCoE, IP SAN offers a lower overall cost. iSCSI storage devices are typically more cost-effective and easier to obtain compared to FCoE devices.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, the choice between FCoE and IP SAN depends on various factors, including performance requirements, existing infrastructure, and budget considerations. Ultimately, organizations must carefully evaluate their specific needs and make an informed decision based on a thorough analysis of the available options.

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