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A Comprehensive Understanding of CFP Transceiver Modules

Updated on December 11, 2021
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To achieve a 100 Gbit/s line rate, one of the solutions is based on 10 lanes of 10 Gbit/s. Hence there emerges the CFP transceiver module, the carrier of the transformation from 10G to 100G. What is a CFP transceiver? What does CFP stand for? This article will expound on the gadget.

What is CFP Transceiver?

The CFP, short for C form-factor pluggable, is a multi-source agreement to define the form-factor of the optical transceiver for high-speed digital signal transmission. CFP transceivers are defined by CFP MSA to enable 40 Gb/s, 100 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s applications. It features a new concept known as the riding heat sink, which makes it very easy for the operator to insert the module into the host board. CFP transceivers include pluggable CFP, CFP2, CFP4, and CFP8 transceiver modules to support the high bandwidth requirements of data communication networks.

Figure 1: FS CFP CFP2 CFP4 Modules

100G CFP Transceiver Types

Pluggable CFP, CFP2, CFP4, and CFP8 transceivers will support the ultra-high bandwidth requirements of data communication networks that form the backbone of the internet.

CFP CFP2 CFP4 Modules for 40/100G

CFP optical module can realize the transmission of a single 100G signal, or multiple 40G signals and OTU3 signals. Its smaller size gives it an advantage over high-density cabling. CFP modules include 100GBASE-SR10 CFP for 100m on multimode fiber cables, 100GBASE-LR10 CFP and 100GBASE-LR4 CFP for 10km via single-mode fiber cables, and 100GBASE-ER10 CFP and 100GBASE-ER4 CFP for 40km on single-mode fiber cables.

CFP2 module electrical interface has been generally specified to allow for supplier-specific customization around various 4 x 25 Gbit/s interfaces, but it can also support 10 x 10 Gbit/s, 4 x 25 Gbit/s, 8 x 2 5 Gbit/s, or 8 x 50 Gbit/s lanes. CFP2 is more efficient than the CFP optical module and it is ideal for line-side trunk DWDM data center interconnection, metro carriers, and regional/long-haul applications.

CFP4 module is the half size of CFP2, a quarter of the width of the first generation of CFP, which is less efficient in port utilization. Its electrical interface is specified to support both 4 x 25 Gbit/s and 4 x 10 Gbit/s interfaces. CFP MSA defined the CFP4 module to apply for 40G/100G Ethernet, telecommunication, and other applications.

CFP8 Transceiver Module for 400G

The CFP8 module was proposed in 2015 and has a similar form factor to the CFP2 module. The new CFP8 module has a small size of 40 mm x 102 mm x 9.5 mm and offers four times more bandwidth than existing 100G solutions. Its electrical interface has been generally specified to allow for 16 x 25 Gb/s and 8 x 50 Gb/s mode. 400G CFP8 transceiver provides Ethernet users with a dense-port and high-throughput solution with its compact size and low power consumption. In terms of bandwidth density, the CFP8 module is 8 times higher than the CFP module and 4 times higher than the CFP2 module. Read How Many 400G Transceiver Types Are in the Market for more information about 400G transceivers types.

Applications of CFP Transceiver Module

CFP is an established primary type of high-speed I/O interface interconnect system primarily used in WAN, Metro, wireless base stations, video, and other telecommunication networks systems. Major market segment implementations include varying volume implementations within some cloud data centers, enterprise data centers, HPC (high-performance computing) labs, and Internet provider systems. Here we illustrate two Metro network applications involving the CFP transceiver module.

100G Coherent CFP Module for Metro Network Applications

Coherent 100G CFPs can overcome optical transmission barriers while maintaining performance. Data transmission between sites over 1000 km can be achieved using DWDM technology.

Scenario 1: Application of CFP Module in 100G Multi-Channel DWDM Network

Since the 100G rates are more susceptible to dispersion, extra dispersion compensation and optical power boost would be required. Thus an extra 100 GHz DWDM multiplexer is first used to combine all the 100G rates together followed by a combined dispersion compensation and amplification stage. This architecture conveniently supports the ‘pay-as-you-grow’ model for service providers. When the bandwidth is exhausted, the existing legacy 10G channels may be seamlessly interchanged with 100G services. The same remaining components can even be reused to extend the data rate up to 2.4 Tb/s.

This scenario would require 24 differently colored CFP modules deployed together with the 48 channel 100 GHz DWDM multiplexer. All the 100G services are first multiplexed together such that only one dispersion compensation and amplification stage suffices. Clearly, such a network architecture provides higher density with the capability to reuse existing infrastructure with flexibility while remaining cost-friendly.

Scenario 2: Application of CFP Module in 100G Distance Extension Solutions

In this scenario, the switch was tested with 10G OEO transponders for simple distance extension solutions. The 100G output signals from the switch are converted to DWDM signals that can be transmitted over longer distances. The solution removes the distance limitations by using a coherent CFP module to connect the output signal to the line fiber and carry the signal over longer distances.

To achieve higher cabling density with CFP 100G optics, the architecture mixed a 16 channels dual fiber DWDM Mux Demux which can be used for CWDM/DWDM hybrid and 8 channels dual-fiber WDM Mux Demux, by adding MTP harness cable and WDM SFP+ OEO converter to transfer the regular SR wavelength to DWDM wavelengths. Therefore, building a long-distance 2500km DWDM network in 100G coherent CFP modules and the cost-effective way will be achieved.

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