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Client-Server vs. Peer-to-Peer Networks

Updated on Jun 1, 2022
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FS Rack Servers

When it comes to network architecture, "client-server" and "peer-to-peer" are two common terms. Both client-server and peer-to-peer networks connect computers so that they can share resources such as data files and applications, but they work in a different way. Read on to dig deeper into their features and differences.

Client-Server Network

In a client–server network, there are at least a dedicated central server that controls the network, and a number of clients that connect to the server to carry out specific tasks.

client-server network

A client-server network can have more than one central server, each performing a specific function. Functions may include user access, data storage, internet connection management, network traffic monitoring etc.

Multiple clients connect to one central server. A client is a computer or computer-controlled device that gives users access to data on the remote server. Types of clients include smartphones, desktop computers, laptops etc.

Benefits of a Client-Server Network

The following list shows the key benefits of using a client-server network:

  • Centralized management of servers makes it easier for IT teams to update data files accessible to users only by making changes in a central location. They can also monitor data from a single server to anticipate potential problems.

  • When stored on a single server rather than across multiple clients, critical information can be better protected from external threats, meaning an increased level of security.

  • New features can be added to a server without having to interrupt normal operations of other devices.

  • Data shared through a client-server network can be used by all the clients, and can be recovered more easily than through a decentralized server network.

Limits of a Client-Server Network

Here are the limits of using a client-server model:

  • Central servers can be pricey to buy and maintain. The overall set-up cost of a client-server network is also high.

  • A client-server network requires a great level of expertise from network technicians to configure and manage both the server hardware and software.

  • The central server's failure will probably disrupt all computers or other devices across the client-server network.

Peer-to-Peer Network

In a peer-to-peer network, there is no central server controlling the network. Instead, all the computers in the network are connected to one another and share resources such as files, applications, and programs. In a peer-to-peer network, each computer can either be a client or a server as it can request or provide services.

peer-to-peer network

Each computer is called a peer and has the same capabilities and access rights. No peer has control over another. For example, a printer on one computer can be used by any other computer on the network. Likewise, one computer in the network can access or delete data from other computers.

Because resource management and network security are not controlled centrally, backups are needed locally for each computer. Peers can communicate directly with each other. There are no restrictions if you want to add a device to a peer-to-peer network.

Benefits of a Peer-to-Peer Network

The following list shows the key benefits of using a peer-to-peer network:

  • File sharing becomes easy. For example, files can be shared over long distances and be accessed anytime in an advanced peer-to-peer network.

  • You don't need to invest in central servers when setting up a peer-to-peer network. In addition, no full-time system administrator is required.

  • New clients can be added easily to a peer-to-peer network, which makes the network more flexible and scalable.

  • If a single computer malfunctions, other computers in a peer-to-peer network will continue to function. This also prevents traffic bottlenecks since traffic is distributed across multiple computers.

  • A peer-to-peer network enables collaboration between different clients that perform different functions, which benefits the whole network.

Limits of a Peer-to-Peer Network

Here are the limits of using a peer-to-peer model:

  • Because security is managed by individual computers, not on the network as a whole, peer-to-peer networks are typically less secure.

  • Each computer needs its own backup system and anti-virus software. This may add to the overall cost of running a peer-to-peer network.

  • Performance and system-wide services provided may be slower since each computer carries out more than one task and can be accessed by other computers.

Client-Server vs. Peer-to-Peer Networks

Now let's move on to the discussion on key differences between client-server and peer-to-peer networks. The comparison chart below will give you a clear picture.

  Client-Server Peer-to-Peer
Basic Multiple clients are connected to a central server. Each computer acts as either a server or client.
Service Clients request services and the server responds to provide the service. Each computer can request or provide services.
Focus It focuses on information sharing. It focuses on connectivity.
Data Data is stored in and managed by a central server. Each computer stores and manages its own data.
Traffic Bottleneck When multiple clients request services at the same time, traffic bottleneck may happen. Traffic bottleneck is not likely to happen as services are provided by several servers.
Expense The network is expensive to set up. The network setup costs less.
Scalability Adding a new client is easy, making the network more scalable. The network suffers if a number of computers are added.
Usage Used for web services and enterprise networks where growth is expected, security is important and fast access times are required. Usually found in homes or small businesses with few security concerns, and a variety of large-scale file sharing networks.

Conclusion

Both client-server network and peer-to-peer network have their own advantages and limits. And both models can bring out good performance if used in suitable environments. You will have to weigh the pros and cons of each network model to decide on which to implement.

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