10 G, 40G, and 100G Ethernet standards were continuously set up to meet the increasing demands of packet-based networks. Gigabit Ethernet is not strange to us now. It’s very popular for the high speed, low implementation cost, high reliability, and relative simplicity of installation and maintenance. This article will see the 10 Gigabit Ethernet.
10 Gigabit Ethernet transmits the data at the rate of 10Gbps per second. This standard extends the IEEE 802.3ae standard protocols and expands the Ethernet application space to include WAN-compatible links.
10 Gigabit Ethernet retains Layer 1 and Layer 2 protocol. At the physical layer (Layer 1), an Ethernet physical layer device connects the optical or copper media to the MAC (media access control) layer. Ethernet architecture further divides the physical layer into three sublayers: physical medium dependent (PMD), physical medium attachment (PMA), physical coding sublayer (PCS). PMD provides the physical connection and signing to the medium like optical transceivers. The PCS consists of coding and a multiplexer. The IEEE 802.3ae standard defines two PHY types: the LAN (local area networks) and the WAN (wide area networks) PHY.
Figure 1. 10 Gigabit Ethernet protocol
Ethernet technology is now the most deployed one for high-performance LAN environments. Compared with Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN network can reach longer distance and support more bandwidth. So 10 Gigabit Ethernet is a natural choice for expanding, extending, and upgrading existing Ethernet networks.
The 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard not only increases the speed of Ethernet to 10Gbps, but also extends its interconnectivity and its operating distance up to 80 km. 10 Gigabit Ethernet supports both single-mode and multimode fiber connection. The single-mode fiber connection can extend the transmission distance to 80 km in 10 Gigabit Ethernet network. This advantage of long distance transmission allows customers who manage their own LAN environments to extend their data center to a more cost-effective location up to 80 km away from their campuses. This also allows them to support multiple campus locations within 40km distances.
With the development of 10 Gigabit Ethernet based technology, the cost for 10 Gbps communications has dropped significantly. So to a certain degree, the cost becomes a main factor to increase the popularity of 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The following will talk about its applications in three areas.
As it mentioned before, 10 Gigabit Ethernet technology has been widely deployed for LAN environments. The supportable network links can reach up to 80 km. So the location of the data center and server farms can be 80 km away from campuses. In the data center, 10 Gigabit Ethernet backbones can be deployed with cost-effective, short-haul and multimode fiber medium.
With 10 Gigabit Ethernet backbones, the network congestion can be reduced, which enables greater bandwidth-intensive applications such as stream video, medical imaging and high-end graphics. It also makes other implementations come true, including distance learning, telecommuting, and digital video conference, etc.
Figure 2. 10 Gigabit Ethernet use in expanded LAN
10 Gigabit Ethernet has already been applied as a backbone technology for dark fiber metropolitan networks. With appropriate optical transceivers and fiber cables, network and Internet service providers can build links reaching 80 km or more, connecting the whole metropolitan areas.
10 Gigabit Ethernet enables low-cost, high-speed infrastructure for both network attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SAN). It can offer superior data carrying capacity at latencies like Fibre Channel. 10 Gigabit Ethernet are applied in many areas, such as remote back-up, storage on demand and streaming media.
10 Gigabit Ethernet greatly reduces the cost of creating high-speed links from co-located, carrier class switches and routers to the optical equipment directly attached to the SONET/SDH cloud. 10 Gigabit Ethernet also allows WANs to connect dispersed LANs between campuses or points of presence over existing SONET/SDH network. The links between a service provider’s switch and a DWDM device may be very short (less than 300 meters).
Figure 3. 10 Gigabit Ethernet use in WAN
The IEEE 802.3ae standard provides a physical layer that supports specific link distances by different media. The following table shows 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces and supported distances over fiber and copper.
|Fiber||10GBASE-SR||850 nm||Serial||300 m||MMF|
|10GBASE-LRM||1310 nm||Serial||220 m||MMF|
|10GBASE-LX4||1310 nm||WDM||300 m/10 km||MMF/SMF|
|10GBASE-LR||1310 nm||Serial||10 km||SMF|
|10GBASE-ER||1550 nm||Serial||40 km||SMF|
|10GBASE-ZR||1550 nm||Serial||80 km||SMF|
|Copper||10GBASE-CX4||–||4 lanes||15 m||Twin Axial|
|10GBASE-T||–||Twisted pair||100 m||UTP|
10 Gigabit Ethernet has come into our daily life step by step. With the development of Ethernet technology, we can achieve higher-speed Ethernet network of 40G and 100G, or even more. Except the major promise of advanced technology, we also need to choose a vendor with the most cost-effective fiber optic products to build network. And Fiberstore (FS.COM) is no doubt the best choice. For more services, please contact via firstname.lastname@example.org.
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