At 9:00 AM: you're having a video conference via your laptop at your office. At 9:00 PM: you're watching a live show with your phone at home. Wait half a jiff, have you ever thought about what wireless equipment is working for your unimpeded network? Surely, you've heard people around talking about "routers" from time to time. Then what about the wireless AP (access point)? Is it the SAME thing with the router? Absolutely not! Wireless access point vs wireless router, we'll help you distinguish the two different wireless network devices in the following content.
A router is a network device that can transfer data in a wired or wireless way. As an intelligent device, the router is enabled to direct incoming and outgoing traffic on the network in an efficient way. Traditionally, a router was connected to other LAN (local area network) devices through Ethernet cables for wired networking. Over time, wireless routers, providing a user-friendly installation without cabling, are increasingly becoming the "darling" for many homes and small offices.
A wireless router refers to a network device that performs the functions of a router by connecting WiFi-enabled devices, like laptops, smartphones, tablets, and such wirelessly. For enterprise routers, they support IPTV/digital TV services and can be used for Voice over IP (VoIP) calls. Besides, they also have firewalls and password protection functionality for defending against the potential threats outside of the LAN.
Figure 1: Wireless Router Network Connection Scenario
A wireless access point, also known as wireless AP or WAP, stands for a networking hardware appliance that adds Wi-Fi capability to the existing wired network by bridging traffic from wireless stations into wired LAN. The wireless AP can act as a stand-alone device or can be a component of a router.
Additional Learning Resource: Distinguishing Fat APs & Fit APs Before Networking
Generally speaking, a wireless AP enables devices that don't have an inbuilt Wi-Fi connection to access a wireless network with the aid of an Ethernet cable. That is to say, the signals run from a router to an access point are transformed from wired to wireless. Additionally, a WAP can also be used for extending the wireless coverage of the existing network in case of the future increasing access requirements.
Figure 2: Wireless Access Point Network Connection Scenario
Wireless access point and wireless router, both support Wi-Fi network connectivity and perform similar roles. The confusion arises accordingly. Actually, these two network devices are more like cousins than twins. The differences between the two will be illustrated in the following.
Figure 3: AP vs Router
In General, most wireless routers combine the functionality of a wireless AP, an Ethernet router, a basic firewall, and a small Ethernet switch. While a wireless access point usually comes as an inbuilt component of devices like routers, or Wi-Fi network extenders. In a word, wireless routers can function as access points, but not all access points can work as routers.
Unambiguously speaking, a wireless router, playing the role of "Ethernet hub," helps in establishing a local area network by linking and managing all the devices connected to it. An access point, however, is a sub-device within the local area network that only provides access to the router's established network. Therefore, if you are a network admin, you can use a wireless router to change the network's settings, but a wireless AP isn't equipped with the functionality.
Routers and wireless AP have divergent connection methods. Usually, the wireless router can offer Wi-Fi signals for devices directly, or connect to a PoE switch which can add wireless APs to extend the Wi-Fi coverage. Compared with wireless routers, some home wireless AP without routing functions cannot be connected to a modem or gateway, and a Wi-Fi router will be used as an intermediary in such conditions.
Sometimes the Wi-Fi signals will be weak and have some dead spots if the wireless router can't reach the expected coverage area. Instead, a wireless access point can be added in locations that have bad network conditions, eliminating dead spots and extending the wireless network. For SMB networks, the enterprise wireless APs need to be connected with a PoE switch and then connect to the gateway to expand the wireless signal coverage.
Typically, wireless routers serve residential homes, SOHO working environments, and small offices or organizations, which can effortlessly meet the fixed and moderate access demands. Obviously, this type of router can't scale to reflect the climbing growth in network needs in the predictable future.
As for wireless APs, they are mostly used in medium to large enterprises and organizations, more than one wireless AP are involved to support multiple users. Unlike the previous situation, network managers can add additional APs as the demand grows, in order to cover a more extensive physical area.
Additional Learning Resource: Wireless AP vs Range Extender: Which Wi-Fi Solution Is Better?
Wireless router vs wireless access point, it all depends on your needs. If you just want a wireless network at home to cover your family members' needs, a wireless router is sufficient. But if you want to build a more reliable wireless network that benefits a large number of users, a wireless access point is more appropriate then.
For a to-be Wi-Fi architecture, there are some key factors that need to be considered: the physical size of the venue, the coverage of the network, the current number of the Wi-Fi users, and even the anticipated access demands. As a go-to choice for many users, wireless routers are almost indispensable for every household and small business. After the wireless access points coming onto the scene, today's large enterprises tend to adopt them to cover a bigger area or to support more users in larger LANs.